X-ray aluminum windows are the most frequently used type of anti-radiation partition, besides doors and protective screens. Aluminum X-ray partitions are an indispensable part of the equipment of many diagnostic labs, serving an important role in protecting both patients and medical personnel against harmful X-ray radiation. The basic application of aluminum X-ray windows is to separate control rooms from the room where diagnostic apparatus employing electromagnetic radiation is found.
The basic components of X-ray windows are aluminum profiles, lead sheet and lead glass. Aluminum profiles are perfectly suited for building X-ray window frames. Aluminum is a material distinguished by exceptional lightness and strength, which is why profiles intended for fabrication of X-ray windows have very good static properties, which are particularly significant considering the weight of lead lined glass glazings. X-ray window frames made of aluminum profiles are resistant to mechanical damage and corrosion and do not degrade under the influence of temperature, moisture or long-term exposure to X-ray radiation. These properties translate to the high durability of aluminum X-ray shielding joinery, and moreover, the surface of X-ray window frames is also characterized by very good microbiological resistance – it is exceptionally easy to clean and maintain in good sanitary condition, and it does not require any advanced maintenance treatments. The aluminum profiles making up an X-ray window frame are filled with a layer of lead of the appropriate thickness. The lead sheet is placed in the exterior chambers of aluminum profiles.
Lead lined glass serves as the glazing of X-ray windows – this special variety of glass performs a protective role thanks to the high content of lead oxides in its structure. Lead glass is transparent and colorless, providing very good translucency of the glazing, and thereby, optical comfort for the user. Lead lined glass intended for installation in aluminum X-ray shielding constructions should be characterized by a precisely defined radiation attenuation factor, i.e. the equivalent lead sheet thickness given in millimeters. It is accepted that the lead lined glass used as glazing for X-ray windows should have a lead factor equal to at least the thickness of the lead layer in the window frame. The glass commonly applied in aluminum windows has a lead equivalent ranging from 0.5 mm Pb to 3.0 mm Pb at 60-150 kV voltage. Many types of lead glass are used in laminated or thermally tempered variants, and the specific type is significant when it comes to ensuring safety in the case of larger glazings. The glass used in the glazings of X-ray shielding windows is not resistant to scratching, cleaning with aggressive agents or weatherproof. Lead glass is used indoors, and exterior windows are protected by X-ray shutters. Lead glass is mounted in X-ray window frames with preservation of continuity of radiological protection.
The choice of the proper X-ray window depends on the tolerable dose of radiation and the required thickness of the lead layer in the X-ray shielding partition. The thickness of the protective Pb layer, calculated according to the standard and given in millimeters, is determined individually for every facility requiring radiological protection. The dimensions of X-ray windows and the lead factor should be given in the design documentation, which takes into account the type and power of radiation-emitting equipment, its location, and the type of radiation generated. The design of radiological protection for a given room should indicate the place of installation of X-ray windows, their dimensions, and the lead factor.
Aluminum X-ray windows are a rather lightweight yet simultaneously effective barrier protecting against penetration by ionizing radiation. They are used, above all, to separate control rooms from diagnostic rooms where equipment emitting electromagnetic radiation is found. They separate adjacent imaging diagnostics labs and are also installed as protective windows in laboratories and operating rooms. These windows are applied in X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance, as well as other imaging rooms. Besides healthcare facilities, X-ray windows are installed in manufacturing plants utilizing X-ray apparatus to check the quality of castings, the continuity of welds, and other product parameters.
require not only precise workmanship but also professional installation. During dosimetric inspection, lead lined X-ray windows must exhibit resistance to penetration by X-ray radiation at all points. Maintenance of the continuity of radiological protection pertains to both window frames and fillings, the joints between fillings and frames, and the points of contact between frames and walls. The design of lead lined X-ray windows based on a system of aluminum profiles makes it possible to implement joinery in a wide range of colors and opens up nearly unlimited possibilities of adjustment to buildings’ interior design. The aluminum profiles used to build X-ray window frames are protected against corrosion via industrial anodizing or powder painting. The coating of aluminum X-ray window frames is easy to keep clean and in good sanitary condition, and is resistant to chemical and mechanical damage. Paints used to finish aluminum profiles are available in the full RAL palette and in imitation wood colors.