Aluminum ventilation windows and doors are an integral component of the system controlling smoke and heat propagation in a building in the event of a fire. Equipped with various types of electrically controlled actuators, they constitute complete devices responsible for the ventilation process, which is required for quick and effective extraction of smoke and heat from a building affected by a fire. Leading smoke, hot air and toxic gases accompanying combustion outside of the building is a condition for safe and efficient evacuation of the people found inside. Supply of fresh air through ventilation doors and windows reduces the temperature inside of the building during a fire, protecting its structure, and also creates smoke-free spaces in the building, substantially facilitating rescue and firefighting operations conducted by firefighters.
are constructions delivered and installed in buildings along with appropriately selected electrical drives, guaranteeing optimal opening of window casements and door leafs in the event of a fire. Along with smoke flaps or smoke extraction windows, they form a comprehensive system for protection of evacuation routes against smoke in buildings. During a fire, ventilation doors and windows support the smoke extraction process by supplying the appropriate amount of compensating air and regulating the pressure inside of the building.
Ventilation of a building’s interior during a fire is necessary for effective operation of a smoke extraction installation: supply from the outside of the appropriate amount of air through ventilation doors and windows makes it possible to create a convection column inside the building that raises the smoke and toxic gases generated by the combustion process, in effect leading them outside of the building through smoke extraction windows or roof flaps.
is performed according to a design accounting for, among other things, the building’s height, its location, the length and configuration of evacuation routes, and the surface area of the stairwell’s base. Windows and doors situated in the lower storeys of the building, below the smoke layer predicted in the event of a fire, are typically designated for performing the aeration function. Entry doors into buildings perform well as elements of a ventilation system, above all on account of their location in the lower storeys and their dimensions, which provide an appropriate ventilation surface. Leafs of ventilation doors, open to an angle of at least 90 degrees during a fire, enable effective air supply into the building while not impeding the free evacuation of people or access by rescue teams.
The leafs and casements of window and door joinery intended for ventilation of a building during a fire are opened by electric actuators constituting an integral parts of such windows’ and doors’ equipment. The work of actuators is initiated by supply of voltage from the control unit of the smoke extraction system, after receiving a singla from an optical smoke detector, a manual fire alarm or the master control unit of the fire system. Ventilation doors and windows are activated simultaneously with smoke flaps and smoke extraction windows, creating a thermal draft according to the laws of physics from the site of air supply to the site of smoke and hot air extraction from the building. A condition required for creating a thermal draft and effective smoke extraction is ensuring the proper geometrical proportions between the surface of ventilation doors and windows and the surface of smoke extraction windows and flaps. Hence, the effective operation of a gravity smoke extraction system requires the supply of an appropriate amount of air from the outside, which is why it is accepted in calculations that the geometrical surface of ventilation windows and doors should be at least 30% greater than the total surface of the smoke windows and flaps coupled with them. Optimal use of the surface of windows and doors makes the aeration process in buildings more efficient and enables effective smoke extraction.
does not deviate much from that of ordinary windows and doors installed in building facades. Ventilation window and door constructions are made of systemic profiles and accessories. Window and door systems are based on shaped sections with a designed depth from 65 to 90 mm, making it possible to obtain a very beneficial thermal insulation factor. A specific feature of ventilation windows and doors is that they are equipped with electrical drives. The leafs and casements of ventilation doors and windows can be opened by chain, spindle, gear or arm actuators. One of the most attractive advantages of electrical drives for doors and windows is their simple installation. Drive units can easily be placed on door frames and window casements made of aluminum profiles thanks to a system of installation consoles adapted to practically every window and door system. Ventilation windows and doors can function both as standalone constructions mounted in a building’s wall and as elements incorporated into aluminum-glass facades. They are not only functional but also very appealing in aesthetic terms. They enable effective ventilation of the building without disrupting the aesthetics of profiles and glazings.
For many years, ventilation joinery has been a fixture in the equipment of multi-storey public buildings, shopping malls, residential and industrial buildings. In the case of fire, this joinery ensures the flow of fresh air from outside of the building, considerably supporting smoke removal and reducing the temperature in the building engulfed by fire. As part of a gravity smoke extraction system, during a fire, ventilation doors and windows create conditions for safe evacuation of people, efficient rescue and firefighting operations, and after the fire is extinguished, enable complete clearing of smoke from the building. In addition, ventilation windows and doors serve for normal ventilation of buildings, unrelated to fire hazard, ensuring periodic aeration of the interior and supply of fresh air. Ventilation window and door joinery differs from ordinary windows and doors by the method of opening. In the case of doors, opening is possible by means of a handle, panic bar or electric actuator, and in the case of windows, manual opening is completely replaced by an electrical drive. Electrical drives for ventilation windows and doors are selected with consideration of the dimensions of leafs and casements, their method of opening, the shape of doorframe and casement profiles, and the weight of the filling. Besides specific features associated with fire safety and ventilation comfort, aluminum ventilation doors and windows have all the advantages of construction joinery based on aluminum window and door systems: they are resistant to corrosion, mechanical damage and adverse weather conditions. They guarantee many years of reliable operation, however, as fire safety elements, they should be inspected periodically for serviceability as per regulations. Windows and doors serving for ventilation are very aesthetically appealing products; as in the case of other aluminum doors and windows, they are powder painted in colors selected from the RAL palette, with a smooth or structural coat. Imitation wood colors are also available as an option, matching the facade of the building in which they are installed well.